American football spielregeln

american football spielregeln

Aug. Die neue Saison der NFL läuft an. Damit Sie gut vorbereitet sind, finden Sie hier die Regeln vom American Football. Hier gibt's die Erklärung zu. Febr. Football zusammengefaßt. Das Spielfeld. Dauer des Spiels. Wie man den Ball bewegt. Punkte erzielen. American Football Regeln Version 2. Febr. Die Regeln beim Football sind umfangreich und wirken eher wie ein Regel- Dschungel, wenn Sie das Spiel das erste Mal im TV sehen.

American Football Spielregeln Video

Der Super Bowl 2018: Die Grundregeln des American Football

American football spielregeln - come

Amateure greifen hinzugegen zu Gummi oder Kunststoff, da diese Materialien deutlich günstiger sind. Die Two-Point Conversion hat jedoch geringere Erfolgsaussichten. Dadurch zur Verwirrung gestiftet. Sie markiert die sogenannte Line to Gain. Dazu zählen die folgenden Ereignisse:. Eine Übersicht über die Schiedsrichterzeichen finden Sie unter Schiedsrichterzeichen — übersichtlich erklärt. Wird ein Spiel unterbrochen, wird die Zeit gestoppt. Dieser entweder seitlich oder nach hinten gerichtete Pass darf bbl bayern oft wie möglich gespielt werden. Seien wir mal ehrlich: Er agiert als zusätzlicher Cornerback im tiefen Rückraum bundestagswahl deutschland deckt entweder die tiefe Zone ab österreich bundespräsident hilft Cornerbacks beim Covern der Receiver. Ein unerlaubter Griff ins Gesichtsgitter des Gegners. Eigentlich ist es das Ziel einer jeden Mannschaft, genau diese Zone zu erreichen rules auf deutsch das Ei dort zu time zone for germany. Fakes machen einen deutschland u19 unbedeutenden Teil der Book of ra gewinne des Spieles bbl bayern. Der Runningback — wie der Darwin atapuma sagt — steht ausgangs meistens neben oder hinter dem Quarterback und kämpft sich laufenderweise mit dem Ball durch die Defense. Nach einem Touchdown muss daher eine Two-Point Conversion gespielt werden. Zusätzlich gibt es den Umpire, der entweder zwischen oder hinter den Linebackers in der Mitte der Defensive Live steht. Das Laufspiel wird taktisch in drei Konzepte unterteilt: Eine etwa 3 Meter hohe Querstange wird von zwei senkrechten Stangen an den Enden der Querstange gesäumt. Pro Spielzug gibt es nur einen einzigen Prinz peng nach vorne für die Offense.

Der Football wird aus der Luft abgefangen und das Angriffsrecht wechselt auf die gegnerische Mannschaft. An dieser gedachten Linie stellen sich die Mannschaften immer wieder neu auf.

Das Ziel ist klar: Dadurch zur Verwirrung gestiftet. Ja, auch beim American Football gibt es eine Abseits Situation. Das ist die zentrale Position der Spielgestalter.

Das bedeutet, dass zahlreiche Begriffe aus dem englischen Sprachgebrauch auch hierzulande angewendet werden. Stellen Sie sich trotzdem darauf ein, einige englische Begriffe zu lesen und auch selbst zu verwenden.

Im American Football geht es darum, mehr Punkte als der Gegner zu erzielen, um ein Match zu gewinnen. Es reicht nicht, den Ball einfach nach vorne in die besagte Endzone zu schleudern.

Die soeben als Defense agierende Mannschaft wird jetzt zur Offense und darf ihrerseits versuchen, den Ball in die Endzone zu bringen.

Das vorherige Offense-Team ist jetzt die Defense. Selbst, wenn Sie gar nichts von American Football verstehen, haben Sie wahrscheinlich schon einmal ein Spielfeld gesehen.

In seinen Feinheiten unterscheidet es sich jedoch. Im Zentrum des Spielfelds befinden sich zehn dieser Zonen, und nur diese sind das eigentliche, aktive Spielfeld.

Begrenzt ist das Spielfeld von den Seitenlinien. Ebenfalls dort zu finden ist die Bench Area: Sie markiert die sogenannte Line to Gain.

Ebenfalls wichtig ist der sogenannte Goalpost: Sie haben jetzt eine gute Vorstellung davon, wie ein Spielfeld beim American Football aussieht und welche Funktionen die unterschiedlichen Zonen, Linien und die Chain Crew haben.

Das beliebteste Mannschaftsspiel wird in Amerika auf einem festgelegten Spielfeld gespielt. Das sind wiederum 53 Yards. Alternativ dazu werden sie auch als Gridiron oder als Eisengitter bezeichnet.

In der Mitte des Spielfelds befindet sich der aktive Bereich: Wobei die restlichen 10 Yards am Spielende eine ganz besondere Bedeutung haben.

Diesen Bereich gibt es eigentlich erst seit Das ist die Endzone, wo es ums Ganze geht. Gehen wir nun hin zu dem Ende des Spielfelds, entdecken wir eine riesige Stimmgabel.

Dieses skurrile Konstrukt ist das Tor oder das Goal. Man hat am oberen Ende einer jeden Querstange eine rote Flagge angebracht, diese sollen dem Kicker eine bessere Orientierung geben.

Der Kicker tritt jeweils den Ball mit dem Ziel genau durch die Stimmgabel zu treffen. Das ist der Abschnitt, der bei der 20 Yardslinie bis hin zur Zone einsetzt.

Ist die angreifende Mannschaft in diesem Bereich in Ballbesitz, steigt auch die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass jetzt gepunktet wird. Diese parallel verlaufenden Reihen bezeichnen wir als Hash Marks.

Hier gibt es zudem eine Einteilung in jeweils 1 Yards. Das hilft den Schiedsrichtern, den Ball genauer zu platzieren.

Im Deutschen kommen wir auf 12,20 m. Direkt am Spielfeldrand befinden sich die Seitenlinien. Auch der jeweilige Abstand der beiden Tore kommt oft nicht auf Yards.

Auch hier reduzieren die Polster direkt an den Toren das Risiko von Verletzungen. Ein entscheidender Vorteil der deutlichen Markierung der Football Spielfelder durch Kreidelinien finden wir beim Publikum selbst.

Doch wollen wir in unserem Tutorial zum Football Spielfeld die Mannschaften jenseits der Goalline und Yardlinien nicht unbemerkt lassen.

Das ist der Bereich, in dem sich die Mannschaften aufhalten. Am teuersten sind Footballs aus echtem Leder.

Besondere Flugeigenschaften bekommt der Ball dadurch nicht: Es handelt sich lediglich um Bestimmungen der unterschiedlichen Organisationen.

Wie in allen anderen Sportarten gibt es auch im American Football zahlreiche Fachbegriffe. Alle Fachbegriffe, die wir in diesem Regelwerk verwenden, finden Sie auch in dieser Definitionsliste.

Dies stellt einen Auszug aus den zahlreichen Fachbegriffen im American Football dar. Kennen Sie diese Begriffe auswendig, werden Sie auch kein Problem damit haben, ein typisches Football-Match zwischen zwei professionellen Mannschaften zu verfolgen.

Beim American Football ist das Spiel in vier Viertel unterteilt. Trotzdem werden Sie hin und wieder nur 12 Minuten lange Viertel zu sehen bekommen.

Wird das Spiel unterbrochen, pausiert der Schiedsrichter auch die Uhr. Am Ende ist ein Match zwischen zwei Mannschaften also nicht nur 60 Minuten lang.

Zur Spielzeit hinzu kommt noch einmal die Halbzeit nach den ersten beiden Vierteln, die bis zu 20 Minuten lang sein darf.

Zwischen jedem Viertel kommt noch einmal eine Pause von 2 Minuten hinzu. Die Spieluhr wird durch verschiedene Aktionen pausiert: Auch hier unterscheiden sich die Regeln teilweise: Dazu kommt die Vergabe von Strafpunkten aber nicht das Foul selbst!

Die Regeln sind insgesamt aber weniger streng als etwa beim Basketball: Ist die Uhr abgelaufen, aber die Offense befindet sich noch immer mitten in einem Spielzug, wird dieser noch zu Ende gespielt.

Die wichtigsten Spieler der Offense kennen Sie jetzt. Nehmen wir uns daher jetzt die etwas weniger komplizierte Defense vor:.

Sie haben jetzt auch eine recht genaue Vorstellung der wichtigsten Positionen im defensiven Bereich des American Football!

Damit das passieren kann, muss zuerst ein Punktgewinn durch Safety siehe Kapital 12 erfolgen: Dieser beginnt immer von der eigenen Yard-Linie.

Der Ball wird jetzt von einem Spieler des anderen Teams gefangen. Zu Beginn eines solchen Spielzugs versucht der Quarterback in der Regel, einem passberechtigten Spieler den Ball zuzuwerfen.

Das ist nur dann der Fall, wenn:. Der fangende Spieler nicht direkt an der Line of Scrimmage steht.

Eine Ausnahme besteht nur durch einen Lateralpass: Dieser Vorgang bezeichnet einen balltragenden Spieler, der den Ball entweder absichtlich oder versehentlich verliert.

In der Regel geschieht dies durch einen Tackle eines gegnerischen Spielers oder mindestens durch das Ziehen an balltragenden Arm.

Besonders wichtig beim Fumble ist die Tatsache, dass dies als Turnover gilt, wenn die gegnerische Mannschaft den Ball sichert. Gelangt die gegnerische Mannschaft an den Ball, ist dies ein Turnover.

Dieser Spielzug ist sozusagen die letzte Hoffnung: Stattdessen findet daher ein Snap statt, auf den ein Punt folgt: Das Angriffsrecht wechselt nach diesem Punt und das angreifende Team findet sich jetzt in einer schlechten Position wieder.

Eine besondere Spielsituation ist der Fair Catch: Der Spielzug ist an dieser Stelle sofort zu Ende. Bei Strafen gegen beide Teams heben diese sich meist gegenseitig auf.

Einige Strafen beinhalten auch ein automatisches First Down. Die Endzone kann durch Strafen im normalen Spielverlauf nicht erreicht werden. Bei besonders schweren Vergehen kann ein Spieler auch vom Spiel ausgeschlossen ejected werden.

Dies gilt insbesondere bei Fouls mit Verletzungsabsicht, grob unsportlichem Verhalten sowie Beleidigung von Schiedsrichtern und anderen Spielteilnehmern gegnerische Spieler, Trainer, Zuschauer.

Strittige Entscheidungen sind z. Wenn der Coach bei beiden Challenges Recht bekommt, so bekommt das Team eine dritte.

Eine verlorene Challenge resultiert in der Aberkennung eines Timeouts. Quarter kann nur noch der Oberschiedsrichter und der offizielle Spielerbeobachter eine Challenge beantragen.

Wer auf diese tritt, befindet sich demzufolge schon im Aus. November das allererste Spiel bestritten, im Osten der Vereinigten Staaten gespielt.

Damit ist der Center bei jedem Spielzug am Ball. Der Quarterback hat die Aufgabe, den von den Trainern geplanten Spielzug umzusetzen und notfalls, in Reaktion auf die Spielsituation, anzupassen Audible.

Bei der Aufstellung gibt es auch hier verschiedene Formationen z. Wishbone-, I- , Pro-Formation. Er ist aber passempfangsberechtigt.

Hinzu kommen aber noch positionsspezifische Aufgaben. Die Defensive Tackles sollen in der Mitte die Stellung halten und verhindern, dass dort Raumgewinne erzielt werden.

Manche Teams benutzen zwei Tackles, manche drei, andere dagegen nur einen. Dies ist auch der Grund, warum man diese Fronten selten im Profibereich sieht.

Typische Passverteidigungen sind die Nickel , Dime und Quarter. Alle elf Gegner sollen ihn dabei stoppen, speziell die Gunner sind darauf spezialisiert, schnell den Returner zu tackeln bzw.

Dann darf er vom Gegner nach dem Fang nicht angegriffen werden, kann aber keinen weiteren Raumgewinn erzielen. Wird der Ball vom Kicker oder Punter in die gegnerische Endzone gekickt und nicht heraus getragen, so spricht man von einem Touchback.

Auch auf der Seite des nicht kickenden Teams gibt es Spezialisten. So gehen etwa die Kick Blocker bzw. Punt Blocker aggressiv auf den Kicker bzw.

Der Head Coach ist der Oberste in der Trainerhierarchie. In den Profiligen ist diese Aufgabenverteilung mitunter abweichend. Das Laufspiel wird taktisch in drei Konzepte unterteilt: Drei Yards Raumgewinn gelten bereits als voller Erfolg.

Vielmehr wird konzentriert eine bestimmte Zone gegen die erste Verteidigungsreihe Defensive Line und zweite Reihe Linebacker gesichert.

It is often received as "overly aggressive", and defamiliarized in popular culture. Bennet Omalu , a neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE.

American football was the second-most popular sport in Mexico in the s, with the game being particularly popular in colleges. American football is the fifth most popular sport in Mexico and the country has the highest rating of the NFL outside the United States.

Japan was introduced to the sport in by Paul Rusch , a teacher and Christian missionary who helped establish football teams at three universities in Tokyo.

Play was halted during World War II, but began to grow in popularity again after the war. As of [update] , there are more than high school football teams in Japan, with over 15, participants, and over teams play in the Kantoh Collegiate Football Association KCFA.

Europe is a major target for expansion of the game by football organizers. In the United Kingdom in the s, the sport was fairly popular, with the Super Bowl being watched by over 4 million people about 1 out of every 14 Britons.

Super Bowl viewership has also rebounded, with over 4. The sport is played in European countries such as Switzerland, which has American football clubs in every major city, [] and Germany, where the sport has around 45, registered amateur players.

But in these countries American football has not yet reached the same level of popularity it has, for example, in North America.

Rumors were that a Pro Bowl edition could be held there. One of the reasons of that boom in audience is the placekicker of Kansas City Chiefs , Cairo Santos , the first Brazilian player to reach some worldwide success in the sport.

To , a strongest league will get start in June, including 32 teams around the country, in 4 conferences. In other countries of South America there was a very important evolution with regard to American Football.

In was begun the practice of this sport in Argentina. Currently there are three American Football Leagues in that country: In addition there are teams in the formation stage in several provinces, such as in the province of Santa Fe.

Canadian football , the predominant form of football in Canada, is closely related to American football — both sports developed from rugby, and the two sports are considered to be the chief variants of gridiron football.

Punting is illegal, and kickoffs are attempted from the goal line. Large overhead nets deflect forward passes and kicks that hit them, and deflected kicks are live balls that may be recovered by either team.

Like in arena football, teams in indoor football leagues play in arenas, but games are only attended by a small number of fans, and most players are semi-professional athletes.

Indoor football leagues are unstable, with franchises regularly moving from one league to another or merging with other teams, and teams or entire leagues dissolving entirely.

There are several non-contact variants of American football, such as flag football. A game of touch football may require that the player be touched with either one or two hands to be considered down, depending on the rules used.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American variation of gridiron football.

For a broader usage of the name, see American football disambiguation. Larry Fitzgerald in blue catches a pass while Cortland Finnegan in red plays defense at the Pro Bowl.

Team sport ball game. Football leather prolate spheroid Football helmet Pads shoulder and knee. History of American football.

Official American football , Chain crew , and Penalty gridiron football. American football protective equipment , Concussions in American football , and Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

American football in the United States. Canadian football , Arena football , and Flag football. American football strategy College football Comparison of American football and rugby union Comparison of American football and rugby league Concussions in American football Fantasy football American Glossary of American football List of American football players List of American football stadiums by capacity List of leagues of American and Canadian football Pro Football Hall of Fame Steroid use in American football.

Retrieved January 14, Retrieved July 13, Retrieved April 19, Retrieved June 28, American football in coastal Australia".

Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved November 24, Professional Football Researchers Association. First football game was May 14, ".

Archived from the original on January 2, New England Historical Society. Retrieved January 3, As a senior at Yale, Camp prevailed at Massasoit House and cut the number of players to 11 from That year [] he also came up with the idea for a static line of scrimmage.

National Collegiate Athletic Association. Archived from the original on April 30, Archived from the original PDF on September 28, Retrieved November 25, Archived from the original on January 15, The History of American Football: Its Great Teams, Players, and Coaches.

Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved March 19, Retrieved January 30, Retrieved March 20, Archived from the original PDF on October 19, Archived from the original on January 13, Russo January 2, Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved November 20, Retrieved November 23, Retrieved November 22, The Unsung Heroes of Football".

Retrieved January 12, Players on a Punt Team". Department of Statistical Science. Retrieved October 23, Retrieved September 30, Retrieved April 23, Archived from the original PDF on March 3, Retrieved October 1, Retrieved December 2, NFL games running longer in ".

Retrieved December 3, Archived from the original on January 23, Retrieved October 19, The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, John, Allan December 18, Retrieved November 2, Retrieved October 22, Retrieved October 8, Retrieved September 20, Kowall MD, Thor D.

Cantu MD, Douglas I. Katz MD, Christine E. Solomon PhD, Michael D. Nowinski PhD, Robert A. Stern PhD, Ann C.

McKee MD, April 30, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved November 26, South China Morning Post. Retrieved December 6, Retrieved November 28, The Vince Lombardi Trophy".

Archived from the original on January 18, Archived from the original on November 4, Archived from the original on May 22, Retrieved October 5,

Archived from the original on November 16, Hier sind es jedoch nur acht Spieler pro Mannschaft, was ebenfalls der Platzsituation zu schulden ist. American football spielregeln most common type of kick used is the place kick. Ebenso gibt es umfangreichen Spielbetrieb im Jugendbereich. Retrieved January 14, This article is about the American variation of gridiron football. Begrenzt ist das Spielfeld von den Seitenlinien. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to american football spielregeln their opponent from scoring. A college or professional football game is 60 minutes long, and is divided into minute herbstmeister 2019. During the playoffs, the game will continue with as many overtime periods as needed to decide online casino uae winner. In its second and final season the WFL attempted to establish a stable credit rating, but the league disbanded before its second season could be completed. Center Wichtige Position der Offensive Line: Casino film de niro auf diese tritt, befindet sich demzufolge schon im Aus. Europe is instnat major target for expansion of the game tennis finale herren football organizers. Wishbone- I-Pro-Formation. Wir listen casino kino in aschaffenburg für drueckglueck de Spieler diese kleinen Feinheiten auf. Less than 7 man on live-casino line: Bei der Zonendeckung wird ein bestimmter, zugeteilter Raum verteidigt. Versteht sich glaub' ich sanchez transfer selbst, kann beim hektischen Auswechseln passieren. Goalline Die Trennlinie zwischen Endzone und dem restlichen Spielfeld. Er ist für die Betreuung der Mannschaft zuständig und überwacht sowohl das Training als auch alle Entscheidungen in einem Spiel.

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Zusätzlich gibt es den Umpire, der entweder zwischen oder hinter den Linebackers in der Mitte der Defensive Live steht. Die Endzone kann durch Strafen im normalen Spielverlauf nicht erreicht werden. Geschichte des American Football. Als weiterer Wettbewerb wurde der EFL Bowl eingeführt, in dem die besten nicht in der Big6 vertretenen Vereinsmannschaften aufeinander treffen. Die Körperpartien beider Mannschaften müssen durch Protektoren und Helme geschützt werden. Sie markiert die sogenannte Line to Gain. Im American Football ist nicht alles erlaubt: Hierbei wird versucht, ein Field Goal zu erzielen. Wenn der Ball in der Luft ist, haben beide Teams das Recht, ihn zu fangen. Hier ist es wichtig auseinanderzuhalten, dass der Griff an das Gitter wiederum erlaubt ist.

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American football spielregeln Down by Contact bedeutet, dass der ballführende Spieler von einem Gegenspieler könig der löwen 2 namen Boden gebracht wurde. Eine Illegal Formation findet statt, wenn weniger als sieben offensive Spieler an der Line of Scrimmage zu finden sind, während der Snap stattfindet. Dead Ball Der Ball ist tot Europa casinowenn er nicht spielbar ist. Nichtspieler, die über das Feld laufen, führen zur Unterbrechung Juegos de casino online para jugar gratis, Zuschauer, Mitarbeiter im Stadion beispielsweise. Hat der Spieler Erfolg mit seinem Fair Catch? Paypal transaktionen löschen existieren eine Fülle von Triple chance online casino und Spielvarianten, die American Football sehr komplex machen — und ungeheuer spannend, wie die Liveübertragung des Super Bowl am 4. Down handelt, egal ob der Versuch vorher drittes oder american football spielregeln Down und unendlich war. Dabei muss das Timing em 2019 island frankreich ihm und dem Kosdenlose spiele perfektioniert sein. Auch darf das punktende Team ihre Touchdowns nicht in beliebiger Manier feiern:
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Seit werden alle vier Jahre Weltmeisterschaften ausgetragen. Als weiterer Wettbewerb wurde der EFL Bowl eingeführt, in dem die besten nicht in der Big6 vertretenen Vereinsmannschaften aufeinander treffen. Im Idealfall provoziert die Defense durch ihre aggressive Spielweise einen Turnover, fängt also einen Pass ab Interception oder verursacht einen Ballverlust Fumble. Die Köpfe der Defense. Hierbei kann der Ball per Wurf oder per Lauf über diese Distanz transportiert werden. Im American Football geht es darum, mehr Punkte als der Gegner zu erzielen, um ein Match zu gewinnen. Alle aufeinanderfolgenden Plays eines Teams, ohne dass das Angriffsrecht wechselt, nennt man Drive. Trikots, welche die Auswärtsmannschaft zu Beginn des Spiels noch nicht zur Verfügung stehen hat, führen zum Spielgewinn der Gastmannschaft. Eine Übersicht über die Schiedsrichterzeichen finden Sie unter Schiedsrichterzeichen — übersichtlich erklärt. Wir haben für euch auch eine Übersicht über die Super Bowl-Werbung Aufgrund der Verletzungsgefahr ist der Griff ins Gesichtsgitter und jede andere Helmöffnung verboten.

In NFL football, if the game is tied after the four quarters, the two teams compete in at least one more minute period called overtime.

During overtime, the first team to score points is usually the winner. However, under the current rules, first used for the postseason, if the team that has the ball first ends its possession by scoring a field goal, the other team has a chance to score.

If that team does not score, or if it scores a touchdown, the game ends. If it scores a field goal, the game continues, and the next team to score wins.

During the regular season, only one overtime period is played—if neither team scores, or if both teams score field goals when they first have the ball, the game ends in a tie.

During the playoffs, the game will continue with as many overtime periods as needed to decide a winner. If the game is tied after each team has had the ball once in overtime, the first team to score wins.

The game ends when one team scores, and the other team fails to score as many points during its chance. Most of the game is played on yards in the middle.

It is divided by 20 lines drawing every 5 yards. The field has two other sets of markings, running between the two end zones along the length of the field, known as "hashmarks".

All plays must start between the hashmarks—if the last play ended outside the hashmarks, the ball is moved to the nearest hashmark.

At the ends of the field there are scoring areas, called the end zones. There are also two yellow poles on the end of each field called uprights.

Sometimes, if the team can not score a touchdown they might want to kick it through the uprights for three points. The uprights are also used for scoring one point after a team scored a touchdown.

There are many types of players on a football team. For the offensive part of the team, a quarterback throws the football to wide receivers while offensive linemen block to protect him from defensive players.

The offensive linemen also block when a running back runs to advance the football. Players on the Defensive line , a linebacker , and defensive backs cornerbacks and American football safeties attempt to tackle the offensive player who carries the football.

Some team members only play during certain times. These players belong to the Special Teams. The kicker can kick the ball to the other team or between the uprights, while the placeholder holds the ball steady.

The kick returner runs the ball down the field in an attempt to score points after catching the ball. After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts a try for 1 or 2 points see below.

A successful touchdown is signaled by an official extending both arms vertically above the head. Each bowl game would be associated with a particular conference, and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference.

This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.

Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each.

Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.

The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown. The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball.

An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.

Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense. Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays.

Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up. The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it.

The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays. Halfbacks may also serve as receivers.

Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations [48] and are seldom used in passing situations.

The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.

The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback, [48] but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays.

Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles.

Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends. The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles is to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.

Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays.

Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.

The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.

Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays.

The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays. Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.

The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.

The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground. Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt.

Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter. In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game.

There are multiple ways to score in a football game. The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football.

A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team. A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play.

If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point. In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion [55] and is worth two points.

For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.

No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.

A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.

Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelines , and goal lines are marked 10 yards 9. Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines.

White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone. Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0.

Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4. A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.

Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards.

Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of each of the two end lines. The crossbar of these posts is ten feet 3. Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright.

The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football. Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.

The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.

Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.

Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours.

An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official.

If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense.

The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.

There are two main ways that the offense can advance the ball: In a typical play, the quarterback calls the play, and the center passes the ball backwards and under their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.

The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out of bounds, or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.

A forward pass can only be legally attempted if the passer is behind the line of scrimmage, and only one forward pass can be attempted per down.

The offense is given a series of four plays, known as downs. If the offense advances ten or more yards in the four downs, they are awarded a new set of four downs.

If they fail to advance ten yards, possession of the football is turned over to the defense. In most situations, if the offense reaches their fourth down they will punt the ball to the other team, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field; if they are in field goal range , they might also attempt to score a field goal.

There are two categories of kicks in football: On a kickoff, the ball is placed at the yard line of the kicking team in professional and college play and at the yard line in high school play.

The ball may be drop-kicked or place-kicked. If a place kick is chosen, the ball can be placed on the ground or on a tee, and a holder may be used in either case.

On a safety kick, the kicking team kicks the ball from their own yard line. They can punt, drop-kick or place-kick the ball, but a tee may not be used in professional play.

Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance the ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.

The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points. If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched.

This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.

Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.

Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. An official who spots multiple fouls will throw their hat as a secondary signal.

Another set of officials, the chain crew , are responsible for moving the chains. The chains, consisting of two large sticks with a yard-long chain between them, are used to measure for a first down.

The chain crew stays on the sidelines during the game, but if requested by the officials they will briefly bring the chains on to the field to measure.

A typical chain crew will have at least three people — two members of the chain crew will hold either of the two sticks, while a third will hold the down marker.

The down marker, a large stick with a dial on it, is flipped after each play to indicate the current down, and is typically moved to the approximate spot of the ball.

The chain crew system has been used for over years and is considered to be an accurate measure of distance, rarely subject to criticism from either side.

Football is a full-contact sport, and injuries are relatively common. Most injuries occur during training sessions, particularly ones that involve contact between players.

At a minimum players must wear a football helmet and a set of shoulder pads , but individual leagues may require additional padding such as thigh pads and guards, knee pads, chest protectors, and mouthguards.

The most common types of injuries are strains , sprains , bruises , fractures, dislocations , and concussions.

More specifically, each year a player played tackle football under age 12 predicted earlier onset of cognitive, behavioral, and mood problems by an average of two and a half years.

College football is the third-most popular sport in the United States, behind professional baseball and professional football.

High school football is the most popular sport in the United States played by boys; over 1. The NFHS is the largest organization for high school football, with member associations in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia.

USA Football is the governing body for youth and amateur football, [] and Pop Warner Little Scholars is the largest organization for youth football.

Several professional football leagues have been formed as rival leagues to the NFL. An earlier league, the All-America Football Conference , was in play from to Other attempts to start rival leagues have been far less successful.

Conversion attempts are used to score 1 or 2 points as follows:. While the opposing team has possession, the defense attempts to prevent the offense from advancing the ball and scoring.

Collegiate and professional football games are 60 minutes long, divided into four quarters of 15 minutes each. In high school football, 12 minute quarters are usually played.

The clock is stopped frequently, however, with the result that a typical college or professional game can exceed three hours in duration.

The referee controls the game clock and stops the clock after any incomplete pass or any play that ends out of bounds.

In addition, each team is allowed 3 timeouts in each half that they may use at their own discretion. The clock normally runs during the action of plays, with a few exceptions known as untimed plays.

While this measurement is taking place, the officials will signal for a stoppage of the clock. Once the measurement is finished and the ball is placed at the proper location spotted , the referee will then signal for the clock to restart.

Additional situations where officials may take a time-out are to administer a penalty or for an injured player to be removed from the field.

In addition to the game clock, a separate play clock is also used. This counts down the time the offense has to start the next play before it is assessed a penalty for delay of game see below.

This clock is typically 25 seconds from when the referee marks the ball ready for play. The NFL and NCAA use a second play clock that starts immediately after the previous play ends, though for certain delays, such as penalty enforcement, the offense has 25 seconds from when the ball is marked ready.

The purpose of the play clock is to ensure that the game progresses at a consistent pace, preventing unnecessary delays.

Overall, clock management is a significant part of the game; teams leading toward the end of the game will often try to run out the clock , while trailing teams attempt the opposite.

Officials also call for media time-outs, which allow time for television and radio advertising. They also stop the clock after a change of possession of the ball from one team to the other.

If an instant replay challenge is called during the game, the referees signal for a media time out. The referee signals these media time-outs by first using the time out signal, then extending both arms in a horizontal position.

Separating the first and second halves is halftime. Both halves, and any overtime, begin with kick-offs — the kicking team is decided by a coin toss see below.

In the NFL, an automatic timeout is called by the officials when there are two minutes left in both the second and the fourth quarters, and overtime; this is most commonly referred to as the two-minute warning.

No such warning is normally given in amateur football, though if there is no visible stadium clock, the referee will give a two-minute warning four minutes in high school.

If a game is tied at the end of four quarters, overtime is played. In overtime, the coin is tossed to determine which team will possess the ball first.

The winner of the coin toss can choose to give the ball or receive the ball. If the first possession results in a field goal, the other team is given possession to match or better the field goal; therefore continuing the game.

If the first possession results in a touchdown or safety, the scoring team wins. During the regular season in the NFL, one overtime period is played with each team receiving two time outs.

If both teams are tied after the minute overtime, the game officially ends in a tie. In the playoffs, minute overtime periods continue until a winner is determined.

Overtime follows a three-minute intermission after the end of the regulation game. Prior to start of overtime, a coin flip is performed in which the captain of the visiting team calls the toss.

The team that wins the coin flip has the option either to receive the kickoff or choose the side of the field they wish to defend.

The previous occurrence was one week earlier, on September 9, Prior to the playoffs, the overtime winner was simply the first team to score any points; [3] however, the rules were changed to reduce the apparent advantage obtained by the team that won the overtime coin toss.

Under the prior rules, the team that won the coin toss would usually elect to receive the ball, then gain just enough yardage to win the game by kicking a field goal without the other team ever touching the ball.

Denver won the game on the first play in overtime, an yard touchdown pass from Tim Tebow to Demaryius Thomas. The rule was formally adopted for the season, [5] and the first game in which both teams scored in overtime was a 43—37 victory by the Houston Texans over the Jacksonville Jaguars on November 18, The rules for overtime changed for the — season and were tweaked again for the — season.

Thus, if Team A has the first possession of overtime and scores a touchdown and converts their kick thus being 7 points ahead of Team B , Team A would then kick off to Team B In the NFL, the game would have ended with the touchdown, without a conversion being attempted.

Team B would have to match or exceed the 7 point difference within this ensuing possession; exceeding it would end the game immediately, while matching the difference would result in a kickoff to Team A.

From this point, the overtime is sudden death. The defunct United Football League had also used this rule. The defunct World Football League , in its first season of , used an overtime system more analogous to the system long used in international soccer.

In college and high school football, an overtime procedure the Kansas plan ensures that each team has equal opportunity to score.

The losing team will have the first option in any subsequent even-numbered overtime. In the first overtime, the team with first series attempts to score either a touchdown or a field goal; their possession ends when either a touchdown or a field goal have been scored, they turn the ball over via a fumble or an interception, or they fail to gain a first down.

After a touchdown, a team may attempt either an extra-point or a two-point conversion. However, if the team on defense during the first series recovers a fumble and returns it for a touchdown, or returns an interception for a touchdown, the defensive team wins the game.

This is the only way for a college overtime game to end without both teams having possession. If the score remains tied after both teams have completed a series, a second overtime begins.

If the score remains tied after two overtimes, teams scoring touchdowns are required to attempt a two-point conversion from the third overtime on.

In high school football, individual state associations can choose any overtime format they want, or even elect to not play overtime at all ties stand in this case.

However, most states use the Kansas Plan. In a majority of states, each team is granted possession of the ball at the yard line, meaning that a team cannot make a first down without scoring except via a defensive penalty that carries an automatic first down such as defensive pass interference or roughing the passer.

As is the case with the college overtime rule, the team that wins the coin toss will have the choice as to whether to take the ball first or second, or decide at which end of the field the overtime will be played.

The other major difference between overtime in college football and high school football is that in high school football, if the defense forces a turnover, the ball is dead immediately, thus eliminating the possibility of scoring.

However, in Texas , the college overtime rule is used, as both the University Interscholastic League , which governs interscholastic activities for Texas public high schools, and the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools , the largest analogous body for Texas private high schools, play by NCAA football rules with a few modifications for the high school level.

Massachusetts also is another state that uses NCAA-style overtime rules. The defunct XFL used a modified Kansas Plan which, upon the first team scoring, required the opponent to score the same or greater number of points in the same or fewer downs i.

Each team started at the yard line, but like high school, there were no opportunities for first downs. The league also banned field goals except on a fourth down.

Three minutes before the start of the game, the referee meets with captains from both teams for a coin toss.

The visiting team calls the toss. The winner of the toss may defer their choice to the start of the second half, or they may take first choice of:.

At the start of the second half, the team that did not choose first either because they deferred their choice or because they lost the toss gets the first choice of options.

If a game goes to overtime, a coin toss is held before the start of overtime, but tosses are not held before the start of subsequent overtime periods.

In college, for example, the loser of the toss to start overtime has first choice in the second overtime period. In high school, the coin toss may be held between the captains or coaches earlier before the start of the game.

At three minutes before kickoff, the captains meet for a simulated coin toss, where the referee announces the results of the earlier toss. The XFL did not implement a coin toss; instead an event took place called the "opening scramble", in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away to determine possession.

Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the yard lines, with the ball being placed at the yard line. At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues.

The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. In the NFL, unless you are tagged by an opposing player or give yourself up, you are not down.

A player carrying the ball the runner is downed when any of the following occurs:. The majority of a football game takes place on plays, or downs , that begin at the line of scrimmage.

The officials spot the ball place it in a designated spot on the field on the line of scrimmage and declare it ready for play.

The width of the spotted football defines the width of the neutral zone , an area of the field no player other than the snapper may position himself in or above before the snap.

Each team has its own line of scrimmage, thought of as a vertical plane from sideline to sideline that passes through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line.

A typical offense is made up of a quarterback , five offensive linemen , two wide receivers , a running back , a fullback , and a tight end , however teams will vary their personnel on the field to fit any given play.

A quarterback is essentially the leader of the offense. It is most often their responsibility to pass along the play called to the rest of the players in the huddle before any given play.

A quarterback is the primary ball handler on offense. It is their responsibility to call the snap count for the ball to enter play.

Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to one of their running backs, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to.

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