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In the 19th century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city.
Nuremberg is still an important industrial centre with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe.
Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products and printed materials.
The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy and medical technology. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city.
The Nuremberg International Toy Fair is the largest of its kind in the world. Nuremberg was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention.
The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg.
Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art.
In , he published the Nuremberg Chronicles , also known as the World Chronicles Schedelsche Weltchronik , an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day.
Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim , who made the first world globe.
Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel was born here and was organist of St.
The academy of fine arts situated in Nuremberg is the oldest art academy in central Europe and looks back to a tradition of years of artistic education.
Nuremberg is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt Christmas market , which draws well over a million shoppers each year.
The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies. The Nuremberg State Theatre , founded in , is dedicated to all types of opera, ballet and stage theatre.
Its name was changed in from its previous name: It is the second-largest opera orchestra in Bavaria. Christof Perick was the principal conductor of the orchestra between — Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September Alexander Shelley has been the principal conductor of the orchestra since Concerts take place around the city; opening and closing events are held in the medieval Burg.
The Bardentreffen , an annual folk festival in Nuremberg, has been deemed the largest world music festival in Germany and takes place since Nuremberg offers 51 public and 6 private elementary schools in nearly all of its districts.
Secondary education is offered at 23 Mittelschulen , 12 Realschulen , and 17 Gymnasien state, city, church, and privately owned.
There are also several other providers of secondary education such as Berufsschule, Berufsfachschule, Wirtschaftsschule etc. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour.
The Nuremberg—Erfurt high-speed railway opened in December The Nuremberg tramway network was opened in The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in It also was the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks.
Nuremberg is located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The A9 Berlin—Munich passes in a north—south direction on the east of the city.
Nuremberg Airport has flights to major German cities and many European destinations. The airport Flughafen is the terminus of subway line 2; it is the only airport in Germany served by a subway.
Nuremberg is an important port on the Rhine—Main—Danube Canal. The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black.
The current chairmen are Andreas Bornemann and Michael Meeske. Nuremberg is twinned with: Apart from the official twin towns sister cities , there are a number with which Nuremberg maintains "cordial relations": Nuremberg also engages in cooperation with various other cities internationally: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the TV film, see Nuremberg film. For the census-designated place, see Nuremberg, Pennsylvania. Place in Bavaria, Germany.
Burgraviate of Nuremberg and Imperial City of Nuremberg. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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I consent to the storage of my data in accordance with the data protection. Organic is more than a label or certification: BIOFACH in the Exhibition Centre Nuremberg is the place where people share their passionate interest in organic food, get to know each other and exchange views, and this since Enter the world of organic products and taste, too — into organic.
The American authorities conducted subsequent Nuremberg Trials in their occupied zone. While Sir Geoffrey Lawrence of Britain was the judge chosen as president of the court, the most prominent of the judges at trial arguably was his American counterpart, Francis Biddle.
Some accounts argue that Truman had appointed Biddle as the main American judge for the trial as an apology for asking for his resignation.
Biddle soon changed his mind, as he approved a modified version of the plan on 21 January , likely due to time constraints, since the trial would be one of the main issues discussed at Yalta.
Jackson played an important role in not only the trial itself, but also in the creation of the International Military Tribunal, as he led the American delegation to London that, in the summer of , argued in favour of prosecuting the Nazi leadership as a criminal conspiracy.
Thomas Dodd was a prosecutor for the United States. There were records taken in by the prosecutors that had signatures from specific Nazis signing for everything from stationery supplies to Zyklon B gas , which was used to kill the inmates of the deathcamps.
Thomas Dodd showed a series of pictures to the courtroom after reading through the documents of crimes committed by the defendants.
The showing consisted of pictures displaying the atrocities performed by the defendants. The pictures had been gathered when the inmates were liberated from the concentration camps.
The Tribunal is celebrated for establishing that "[c]rimes against international law are committed by men, not by abstract entities, and only by punishing individuals who commit such crimes can the provisions of international law be enforced.
It served as the model for the International Military Tribunal for the Far East which tried Japanese officials for crimes against peace and against humanity.
It also served as the model [ citation needed ] for the Eichmann trial and for present-day courts at The Hague, for trying crimes committed during the Balkan wars of the early s, and at Arusha, for trying the people responsible for the genocide in Rwanda.
The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law. The Conclusions of the Nuremberg trials served as models for:.
The influence of the tribunal can also be seen in the proposals for a permanent international criminal court, and the drafting of international criminal codes, later prepared by the International Law Commission.
Tourists can visit courtroom on days when no trial is on. A permanent exhibition has been dedicated to the trials. The Nuremberg trials initiated a movement for the prompt establishment of a permanent international criminal court, eventually leading over fifty years later to the adoption of the Statute of the International Criminal Court.
This movement was brought about because during the trials, there were conflicting court methods between the German court system and the U. The crime of conspiracy was unheard of in the civil law systems of the Continent.
Therefore, the German defense found it unfair to charge the defendants with conspiracy to commit crimes, while the judges from common-law countries were used to doing so.
It [IMT] was the first successful international criminal court, and has since played a pivotal role in the development of international criminal law and international institutions.
As Biddiss observed, "the Nuremberg Trial continues to haunt us. It is a question also of the weaknesses and strengths of the proceedings themselves.
Quincy Wright , writing eighteen months after the conclusion of the IMT, explained the opposition to the Tribunal thus:. The assumptions underlying the Charter of the United Nations, the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal are far removed from the positivistic assumptions which greatly influenced the thought of international jurists in the nineteenth century.
Consequently, the activities of those institutions have frequently been vigorously criticized by positivistic jurists How can principles enunciated by the Nuremberg Tribunal, to take it as an example, be of legal value until most of the states have agreed to a tribunal with jurisdiction to enforce those principles?
How could the Nuremberg Tribunal have obtained jurisdiction to find Germany guilty of aggression, when Germany had not consented to the Tribunal?
How could the law, first explicitly accepted in the Nuremberg Charter of , have bound the defendants in the trial when they committed the acts for which they were indicted years earlier?
This is a little too sanctimonious a fraud to meet my old-fashioned ideas", Stone wrote. Jackson, in a letter discussing the weaknesses of the trial, in October told U.
Truman that the Allies themselves "have done or are doing some of the very things we are prosecuting the Germans for.
The French are so violating the Geneva Convention in the treatment of prisoners of war that our command is taking back prisoners sent to them. We are prosecuting plunder and our Allies are practising it.
We say aggressive war is a crime and one of our allies asserts sovereignty over the Baltic States based on no title except conquest.
Douglas charged that the Allies were guilty of "substituting power for principle" at Nuremberg. Deputy Chief Counsel Abraham Pomerantz resigned in protest at the low caliber of the judges assigned to try the industrial war criminals such as those at I.
Taft , a US Senate Majority Leader from Ohio and son of William Howard Taft , criticized the Nuremberg Trials for trying Nazi war criminals under ex post facto laws which resulted in his failure to secure the Republican nomination for President in A number of Germans who agreed with the idea of punishment for war crimes admitted trepidation concerning the trials.
A contemporary German jurist said:. That the defendants at Nuremberg were held responsible, condemned and punished, will seem to most of us initially as a kind of historical justice.
However, no one who takes the question of guilt seriously, above all no responsibly thoughtful jurist, will be content with this sensibility nor should they be allowed to be.
Justice is not served when the guilty parties are punished in any old way, even if this seems appropriate with regard to their measure of guilt.
Justice is only served when the guilty are punished in a way that carefully and conscientiously considers their criminal errors according to the provisions of valid law under the jurisdiction of a legally appointed judge.
The Tribunal shall not require proof of facts of common knowledge but shall take judicial notice thereof. It shall also take judicial notice of official governmental documents and reports of the United [Allied] Nations, including acts and documents of the committees set up in the various allied countries for the investigation of war crimes, and the records and findings of military and other Tribunals of any of the United [Allied] Nations.
Attractive as this argument may sound in theory, it ignores the fact that it runs counter to the administration of law in every country.
If it were true then no spy could be given a legal trial, because his case is always heard by judges representing the enemy country. Yet no one has ever argued that in such cases it was necessary to call on neutral judges.
The prisoner has the right to demand that his judges shall be fair, but not that they shall be neutral. One criticism that was made of the IMT was that some treaties were not binding on the Axis powers because they were not signatories.
This was addressed in the judgment relating to war crimes and crimes against humanity, [avalon 26] which contains an expansion of customary law: The Nuremberg Trials employed four official languages: English , French , German and Russian.
In order to address the complex linguistic issues that clouded over the proceedings, interpretation and translation departments had to be established.
However, it was feared that consecutive interpretation would slow down the proceedings significantly. What is therefore unique in both the Nuremberg tribunals and history of the interpretation profession was the introduction of an entirely new technique, extempore simultaneous interpretation.
This technique of interpretation requires the interpreter to listen to a speaker in a source or passive language and orally translate that speech into another language in real time, that is, simultaneously, through headsets and microphones.
Interpreters were split into four sections, one for each official language, with three interpreters per section working from the other three languages into the fourth their mother tongue.
For instance, the English booth consisted of three interpreters, one working from German into English, one working from French, and one from Russian, etc.
Defendants who did not speak any of the four official languages were provided with consecutive court interpreters. Some of the languages heard over the course of the proceedings included Yiddish , Hungarian , Czech , Ukrainian , and Polish.
The equipment used to establish this system was provided by IBM , and included an elaborate setup of cables which were hooked up to headsets and single earphones directly from the four interpreting booths often referred to as "the aquarium".
Four channels existed for each working language, as well as a root channel for the proceedings without interpretation. Switching of channels was controlled by a setup at each table in which the listener merely had to turn a dial in order to switch between languages.
People tripping over the floor-laid cables often led to the headsets getting disconnected, with several hours at a time sometimes being taken in order to repair the problem and continue on with the trials.
Interpreters were recruited and examined by the respective countries in which the official languages were spoken: Many were former translators , army personnel, and linguists , some were experienced consecutive interpreters,  others were ordinary individuals and even recent secondary school-graduates who led international lives in multilingual environments.
It was, and still is believed [ citation needed ] , that the qualities that made the best interpreters were not just a perfect understanding of two or more languages, but more importantly a broad sense of culture, encyclopedic knowledge, inquisitiveness, as well as a naturally calm disposition.
With the simultaneous technique being extremely new, interpreters practically trained themselves, but many could not handle the pressure or the psychological strain.
Many often had to be replaced, many returned to the translation department, and many left. Serious doubts were given as to whether interpretation provided a fair trial for the defendants, particularly because of fears of mistranslation and errors made on transcripts.
The translation department had to also deal with the overwhelming problem of being understaffed and overburdened with an influx of documents that could not be kept up with.
More often than not, interpreters were stuck in a session without having proper documents in front of them and were relied upon to do sight translation or double translation of texts, causing further problems and extensive criticism.
Other problems that arose included complaints from lawyers and other legal professionals with regard to questioning and cross-examination. Legal professionals were most often appalled at the slower speed at which they had to conduct their task because of the extended time required for interpreters to render an interpretation properly.
Also, a number of interpreters protested the idea of using vulgar language, especially if it referred to Jews or the conditions of the Nazi concentration camps.
Yet, despite the extensive trial and error, without the interpretation system the trials would not have been possible and in turn revolutionized the way multilingual issues were addressed in tribunals and conferences.
A number of the interpreters following the trials were immediately recruited into the newly formed United Nations , while others returned to their ordinary lives, pursued other careers, or worked freelance.
Outside the boundaries of the trials, many interpreters continued their positions on weekends interpreting for dinners, private meetings between judges, and excursions between delegates.
Others worked as investigators or editors, or aided the translation department when they could, often using it as an opportunity to sharpen their skills and to correct poor interpretations on transcripts before they were available for public record.
For further reference, a book titled The Origins of Simultaneous Interpretation: Today, all major international organizations, as well as any conference or government that uses more than one official language , uses extempore simultaneous interpretation.
Notable bodies include the Parliament of Kosovo with three official languages, the Parliament of Canada with two official languages, the Parliament of South Africa with eleven official languages, the European Union with twenty-four official languages, and the United Nations with six official working languages.
Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials film.
Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations. Holocaust survivors Deportations of French Jews to death camps.
Days of remembrance Memorials and museums Righteous Among the Nations. There were, I suppose, three possible courses: Which was it to be?
Was it possible to let such atrocities go unpunished? It will be remembered that after the First World War alleged criminals were handed over to be tried by Germany , and what a farce that was!
The majority got off and such sentences as were inflicted were derisory and were soon remitted. The Indictment shall include full particulars specifying in detail the charges against the Defendants.
A copy of the Indictment and of all the documents lodged with the Indictment, translated into a language which he understands, shall be furnished to the Defendant at reasonable time before the Trial.