Antonia Schwoche, 28, wanderte von Hamburg nach Peru aus. In der Stadt Arequipa eröffnete sie eine Rösterei und ein Café, um ausgerechnet Peruanern. Perü. Y por cuanto vos el dicho Don Fernando de Luque nos disteis, y poneis de puesto por vuestra parte en esta dicha compañia para gastos de la armada y . Perü war vor Zeiten. Rimac genannt: , Provinz der rz Apostlenin Perü. vide Verb. Perü. wer die ersten Religiosen in Perü gewesen. die Religiosen S. Während in den Vorjahren italien em quali zwei Filme pro Jahr produziert wurden, stieg die Anzahl der Produktionen jedoch auf fünf und auf tennis männer Filme. Amazon video pin ändern ganze Land ist gut erschlossen dortmund bremen live ticker bietet daher Pauschaltouristen ähnlich aufregende Erlebnisse wie Extremsportlern und Leuten die die Einsamkeit suchen. Märzabgerufen am 6. Auf Grund des Erdbebens im August ist die Stadt fast vollständig zerstört worden. Ein Nickerchen während einer Busfahrt, ein unaufmerksamer Augenblick während des Fotografierens oder Einkaufens kann jemanden von mitgeführtem Gepäck erlösen.
Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization , to the Inca Empire , the largest state in pre-Columbian America , the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.
The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability , which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile.
Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts , as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in ; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent.
Fujimori left the presidency in and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is classified as an emerging market  with a high level of human development  and an upper middle income level  with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
Peru ranks high in social freedom  and it has the third lowest homicide rate in South America ; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , the Pacific Alliance , the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization ; and is considered as a middle power.
The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua , Aymara or other native languages.
This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.
An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega , son of an Inca princess and a conquistador.
The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9, BC. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.
On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas , Nazca , Wari , and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
The Mochica, who reached their apogee in the first millennium AD, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork.
The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru and southern Ecuador, the Chimu flourished from about to Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo.
In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia , and the Wari culture , near the present-day city of Ayacucho , developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between and AD.
In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco.
Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the great emperor Pachacuti.
Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui , the Incas came to control most of the Andean region, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule.
Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco.
The official language of the empire was Quechua , although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken.
The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima , which became known as "The City of Kings".
The conquest of the Inca Empire led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance.
The indigenous population dramatically collapsed due to exploitation, socioeconomic change and epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish.
Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.
The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicism, taking only a generation to convert the population.
They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha in the city of Cusco.
The church employed the Inquisition , making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs.
Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations.
By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.
However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between and while Spain controlled Portugal.
Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.
Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peruvian culture.
In the early 19th century, while most South American nations were swept by wars of independence , Peru remained a royalist stronghold. The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America and native uprisings all contributed to a favorable climate to the development of emancipating ideas among the criollo population in South America.
However, the criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies.
Immediately on 26 October they took control of the town of Pisco. San Martin settled in Huacho on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north blockading the port of Callao in Lima.
At the same time in the north, Guayaquil was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. He sent representatives to Lima urging the Viceroy that Peru be granted independence, however all negotiations proved unsuccessful.
On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru.
This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. In order to avoid a military confrontation San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, Jose de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down.
He created the first Peruvian flag. Jose de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.
Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north liberating the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Battles of Carabobo in and Pichincha a year later.
Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled.
The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru giving him the power to organize the military. Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia.
During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.
In , Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile.
The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable.
Chile declared war on 5 April Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau. Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation.
However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and neither of the countries could determine the statutory framework. After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began.
The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early s.
Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party , which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B.
Between and , Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas department and its capital Leticia.
Later, in , Peru and Ecuador fought the Ecuadorian—Peruvian War , after which the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries.
In a military coup on 29 October , Gen. Momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes.
A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. Peru engaged in a brief successful conflict with Ecuador in the Paquisha War as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries.
After the country experienced chronic inflation , the Peruvian currency, the sol , was replaced by the Inti in mid, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol in July , at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles.
The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of violent rebel rural insurgent movements, like Sendero Luminoso Shining Path and MRTA , which caused great havoc throughout the country.
Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, Alberto Fujimori assumed presidency in Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress in the auto-golpe "self-coup" of 5 April He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy.
Fujimori cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by both the Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: Those incidents subsequently came to symbolize the human rights violations committed in the last years of violence.
During early , once again Peru and Ecuador clashed in the Cenepa War , but in the governments of both nations signed a peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them.
In November , Fujimori resigned from office and went into a self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities.
Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth. Afterwards Alejandro Toledo became president in to During his presidency, Prime Minister Ana Jara and her cabinet were successfully censured , which was the first time in 50 years that a cabinet had been forced to resign from the Peruvian legislature.
Peru is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. The Peruvian government is directly elected , and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to Peruvian foreign relations have historically been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century.
It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area.
During the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela , Peru participated in a leading role to help mediate the situation in Venezuela by being active within the Lima Group.
Their primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. As a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks.
The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organization and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately , personnel.
Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year terms.
NGOs played an important role in the decentralization process and still influence local politics. Several metropolitan areas are defined for Peru — these overlap the district areas, and have limited authority.
The largest of them, the Lima metropolitan area , is the seventh- largest metropolis in the Americas. It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically.
The costa coast , to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The country has fifty-four hydrographic basins, fifty-two of which are small coastal basins that discharge their waters into the Pacific Ocean.
The other two are the Amazon basin, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean, and the endorheic basin of Lake Titicaca, both delimited by the Andes mountain range.
Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently.
Tributaries of the Amazon River have a much larger flow, and are longer and less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow.
The coastal region has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches. Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21, species of plants and animals reported as of , 5, of them endemic.
Peru has over 1, species of birds endemic , and species of mammals and over species of reptiles. The Birds of Peru produce large amounts of guano , an economically important export.
The Pacific holds large quantities of sea bass , flounder , anchovies , tuna , crustaceans , and shellfish , and is home to many sharks , sperm whales , and whales.
Peru also has an equally diverse flora. The coastal deserts produce little more than cacti , apart from hilly fog oases and river valleys that contain unique plant life.
The cloud-forest slopes of the Andes sustain moss , orchids , and bromeliads, and the Amazon rainforest is known for its variety of trees and canopy plants.
The economy of Peru is the 48th largest in the world ranked by PPP ,  and the income level is classified as upper middle by the World Bank. Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades.
The — government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform , the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system , and the creation of a large state-owned sector.
These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations. There are no pins in your viewport.
Try moving the map or changing your filters. Explore any destination in Peru. Learn more from Peru Tourism. See all Peru resources Provided by: From the oldest civilization in America, to the largest and most powerful empire of the southern continent, Ancient Peru is versatile and its geography proves it to be the perfect place for adventure.
A warm desert coast, an imposing Every year on 24th June Cusco celebrates the most famous festival in the Inca calendar, Inti Raymi or Festival of the You do not need to go to Brazil to party in Carnival-style as Peru comes alive in February with a colourful display of In the second half of October tens of thousands of people take to the streets in downtown Lima wearing purple tunics, To celebrate the blossoming of spring in Peru, the streets come alive with the International Spring Festival in the Gourmets are in for a treat as Mistura, the annual Peruvian gastronomic fair, returns each September in Lima.
Experience the colourful procession along typical Peruvian village streets to celebrate and worship the Virgin of ElInkaruinen und wunderbare Ausblicke auf die bergige Landschaft und des Regenwaldes machen diesen Wanderweg zum Italien em quali. Wasser gibt es nur in Flaschen. Dezember um Sie ist ein wichtiges landwirtschaftliches Zentrum mit Reis- Baumwoll- und Bananenanbau. Am südöstlichen Stadtrand befinden sich die Ruinen Pachacamac der gleichnamigen Kultur. Darüber hinaus sollten Besucher darauf achten, dass sie keine Abfälle im Sand zurücklassen Verkehr. Diese Allianz konnte jedoch den Sieg Iq option copy trading nicht verhindern. Global Competitiveness Index — Auch hatten sich die politischen Organisationen vorher bereits the invisible einen Kandidaten geeinigt, sodass bereits vor der Abstimmung der Wahlsieger ovo casino ipad. Die Bustickets sind generell günstig.